The Aichi Targets, named after the Japanese province that hosted COP 10, are about adhering to the strategic biodiversity plan 2011-2020 signed by Peru, along with 195 other countries.
World Earth Day, the most important and popular environmental event in the world, was first celebrated on April 22, 1970. On this day, its founder, US Senator Gaylord Nelson, encouraged students to raise environmental awareness in their communities. Today, Earth Day is celebrated worldwide by more than 500 million people in 184 countries.
On March 30, 2005, UNESCO published the first Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, a revealing account of human impact on the planet. In recent years, human activities have significantly altered ecosystems to meet the growing demand for food, fresh water, timber, fiber and energy… Irreversible degradation with catastrophic consequences, as the well-being of man himself is now threatened for forty years.
Peru achieves Aichi Biodiversity Target
The work carried out by the National Service of Natural Areas Protected by the State of Peru (SERNANP) has exceeded Aichi’s 2020 target for the area of protected areas in the country.
The Aichi Targets refer to compliance with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020; which aims to stop the loss of nature, as well as the life support of all forms of life on the planet. The Aichi Targets are broken down into 20 actions grouped into five strategic goals proposed by government representatives from the 196 countries that have signed the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
In 2010, Peru and 195 other countries committed to achieving 20 bioconservation goals, including one required that by 2020, 17% of the country’s surface (including inland waters) be conserved and managed through a system of protected areas.
During 2021, SERNANP was able to measure the achievement of this goal for Peru by presenting two types of results: at the level of geographical space, defined by the surface that makes up all protected natural areas, and at the level of ecological space, defined by the ecoregions that exist in these areas.
This information is a key input for identifying priority sites that can improve the physical structure of the National System of Protected Areas (SINANPE) and thus optimize system management. In addition, these results facilitate the identification of physical (size and shape) and functional (aggregation and connectivity) characteristics that need to be enhanced in order to improve the physical design of SINANPE for conservation.
Results achieved in 2021 in terms of geographic space
The design of the physical component of SINANPE, consisting of National Administration Protected Areas (ANP), Regional Conservation Areas (ACR) and Private Conservation Areas (ACP), provides the expected spatial representation in 17% of the national territory. Taking into account, in addition, 5 other conservation mechanisms such as indigenous reserves, territorial reserves, conservation concessions and concessions for ecotourism and agro-biodiversity, the goal is exceeded, reaching 20% of the representativeness of the national territory. This result is largely related to the Amazon region, suggesting that more work is needed to improve the geographic representation of the Peruvian coast and the Andes.
In addition, the physical component of SINANPE has a low degree of fragmentation with protected areas in excess of 20,000 km2. Despite this, its level of connectivity is low, meaning physical spaces remain distant from each other. This mainly affects species with low dispersal capacity such as amphibians, birds and small mammals, especially in coastal and mountainous areas.
Results achieved in 2021 on ecological space
The Protected Natural Areas of the National Administration, which are part of CINANPE, preserve representative samples, little fragmented, well connected and unlikely to be transformed by the “border” effect (i.e. five Amazonian ecoregions, in addition to Yungas, Sabanas del Beni and Manglares de Tumbes – Gulf of Guayaquil.
Regional administration (RCA) and private (ACP) protected areas, as well as the 5 conservation mechanisms mentioned above, also play a fundamental role. Indeed, they allow other ecoregions, such as the swamps and forests of the Cordillera Oriental, to maintain more representative and better connected samples in the system.
Efforts to improve the conformation of SINANPE and strategically integrate it into the territory are yet to be undertaken, mainly for the coast and Andean ecoregions of Peru. where protected areas are the weakest not only in terms of geographical representativeness, but also in terms of the degree of connectivity of their ecological elements.